Last Updated: Friday, 27 December 2019 20:00
Written by Graham Brooks
CARVED STONES OF THE ISLE OF MAN
The Isle of Man is particularly rich in early medieval period carved stonework. The stone work relating to christianity dates from the seventh century, early celtic christianity to the vikings in the eleventh centuries.
The majority of these worked stones are in the form of grave markers and alot have some form of cross carved on them. The early examples have simple compass-arc decoration dating from 650 to 800 AD. from the 9th century larger slabs of monumental proportions were erected. They often bear representations of the celtic ring-headed cross in low relief on a rectangular slab. A lot of these slabs also show closely-knit interlacing patterns.
After the conversion of the Viking invaders to Christianity the practice of erecting cross slabs was readopted in the 10th century. Many had inscriptions on the edge in Runes. They also incorporated Scandinavian art styles including interlacing ornament and animals.
CELTIC RING CROSS SLABS
Cross Slab with Monks, Maughold.
A large rectangular slab with Celtic ring-headed cross in low relief typical 9th Century with pictish overtones. The two seated monks flanking the cross shaft probably represent the Coptic saints Paul and Anthony in the Egyptian desert.
Crux Guriat, Maughold
A very large cross slab 7ft x 3ft. the whole face has been tooled downto leave hemispherical bosses protruding to indicate the cross-head. the shaft, ring and base are marked by inscised lines.
The right edge bears a simple inscription in Hiberno-British characters "Crux Guriat" i.e. the cross of Guriat. Guriat according to early welsh records as probably a British king ofMan whose son Myrfyn Frych successfully established his dynasty as the Kings of North Wales.
Osruth's Cross, St Johns Church, Tinwald.
A runic cross dating from 950 AD. Carved on one face only with the typical Manx ring and chain pattern introduced by Gaut.
One edge is carved incompletly with runes - But osruth carved these runes.
Sandulf's cross slab from Andreas now in museum Douglas.
A 10th century cross-slab. The cross is in plain low relief on each face with interlacing on the shaft. Ring chain on one face and a plait of 5 on the other. There is animal decoration flanking the shaft including goats and rams. The common hunting scene of a dog leaping onto a deer.
Runics on side read 'Sandulf the black erected this cross to the memory of Arinbiorg his wife'.
Last Updated: Sunday, 15 September 2019 19:29
Written by Graham Brooks
GUN POWDER AND EXPLOSIVE STORES
The 1875 Explosives act was the first major legislation to control the storage of explosives at mines and quarries. The legislation contains an example of how a small store should be constructed.
'A description is given of an example of a brick store for use in a small mine or quarry suitable for keeping 50 lbs of blasting powder and 10 lbs of detonators.
Walls – to be at least 9 inches thick with proper footings of concrete composed of 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, 4 parts hard aggregate. An efficient damp proof course of asphalt, slate or copper to be placed above ground level and below flooring joists.
Ventilators – One 9 x 3 inch galvanised iron ventilator with shield to be fitted at top and bottom of back wall.
Floor – To be 6 inch by 1⅛ inch wrought white pine flooring, tongued and groved laid on 4-inch by 2-inch red-pine joists, which are to be well-tarred on ends where built into walls. All flooring boards to be well nailed through the feathers. All nails to be driven angleways and where necessary in flat of boards, to be punched under and puttied over so that no exposed iron may be left. Fillets to be fitted in all angles. Floor level to be 8 inches above ground level. All nails to be of copper or brass.
Framing – 3 x 1 inch white pine uprights securely fastened to brickwork.
Lining – The inside of building, walls and ceiling, to be lined with 3 x ⅝inch match-board dressed on oneside tongued and grooved and nailed to 2 x 2 inch framing. Nails to be driven angleways through edges of boards and to be punched under and puttied over.
Roof – reinforced concrete 5 inches thick at crown and 4 inches thick at eaves to run off water. Roof to project 4½ inches over walls and to have weather grooves in underside. Concrete to be formed of 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts clean sharp sand, 4 parts granite, whin or other hard aggregate. The reinforcement not less than 0.2 sq inch per foot run. The roof to be covered with 2 layers of bituminous sheeting laid in hot bitumen. The underside to be plastered with 2 coats of sand and cement plaster finished with a coat of hard wall plaster or finished with timber lining as walls.
Doors – 2 feet x 2 feet x 1½ inches framed red pine doors hung on 6 inch by 2⅝ inch standards securely fastened to brickwork and fitted with 2 solid brass edge hinges and 2 brass locks with duplicate keys. Doors to open outwards and to sheathed externally with iron sheeting. The outer surface of the doors to be covered with 20 S.W.G iron sheeting to cover one door standard, ½ inch of door lintel, and project ½ inch over bottom sole plate, the other door standard to be covered with a strap of 20 S.W.G. thick iron.
Painting – All internal woodwork, except floor, to receive 3 coats of good quality varnish. External woodwork and metal work to receive 3 coats good quality oil paint of approved colour.
A requirement of the legislation was for double doors on the entrance as is shown by the 2 door frames o this store.
The inside was lined with wood fastened to wooden strips set into the wall. These were fastened with copper nails to prevent any sparks from iron. The floor was also wood.
The vwooden wall strips on which panelling was fixed.
There was also a need to display a notice regarding the rules at the store.
2 notices from explosive stores (Nenthead Mines Conservation Society Collection)
Powder store Bentyfield mine. NY 759 423.
This is built out of local stone with a stone flag roof. It had 2 gables with the door in the long wall.
Powder Ho at Cashburn Mine NY 71668 36707
A simialr design to above but with door off set to side.
Powder Store Greenhurth Mine NY 77 32
Poowder store at Long Kate Lock mine. NY 69180 35390
Nenthead north powder store. Renovated by the Nenthead Mines Preservation Trust in 2015.
Nenthead south powder store.
Stone walls cement rendered.
Explosive store at Force Crag Mine NY 19908 21482 a large room for the explosives and a smallerbuilding for the detonators door on opposite side. Brick walls cement rendered.
Explosive and detonator store at Seat Quarry NY 28412 40127.
A brick built store as per the description.
Explosive store Silverband mine NY 70199 31590.
Small explosive store or detonator store at Hartside barytes mine.
A larger store at Hartside barytes mine.
Powder store at Tilberthwaite NY 297 015.
Powder store at Gategill lead mine NY 32418 26304.
Built from the local Skiddaw Slate with bricks to form the door frames and corners.
A small explosive store at Knock Pike quarry.
Small brick built explosive and detonator store at Bishop Hill limestone quarry NY 61396 58961 there is a pair of limekilns associated with the quarry.
Powder store and detonator store at Threlkeld micro-granite quarry. Note the warning on the door and the steel plate on the outside of the door.
Explosive store at Foresthead Quarry.
This is a large limestone quarry with an impressive set of limekilns.
Not all powder stores were at the mines or quarries. The London Lead Company built its own store at Nenthead village from where they supplied individual mines and miners.
A brick built store at Acorn Bank (Boazman) gypsum mine near Temple Sowerby. Probably dates from the development of the new drift starting in 1923.
Internal doorway spliting the building in to two parts.
POWDER HOUSES FROM AROUND THE COUNTRY.
A powder store on the shore at Scarlett Point limestone quarry, Isle of Man.
An explosive store surrounded by a blast wall on Langness, Isle of Man
There is no quarry or mines on Langness and this store could have been for ammunition for the local ranges.