Smithfield is a small hamlet approximately halfway between Brampton and Longtown in North Cumbria.

George Hope was a Sculptor, general carver and marble mason.

hope invoice


Examples of his work.

bell hope irthington

Thomas Bell August 1842 Irthington Churchyard.

rev bell kirklinton hope

White marble wall tablet for Rev. George Bell died November 1872. Kirklinton Church.

el bell hope kirklinton

Slightly plainer table to the Rev. Georges Bell's first wife Elizabeth (above) Kirklinton church.

elliot hope bewcastle

Joseph Elliot Bewcastle Churchyard.

jackson hope arthuret

Walter Jackson died July 1889 Arthuret Churchyard.




The Isle of Man is particularly rich in early medieval period carved stonework. The stone work relating to christianity dates from the seventh century, early celtic christianity to the vikings in the eleventh centuries. 

The majority of these worked stones are in the form of grave markers and alot have some form of cross carved on them. The early examples have simple compass-arc decoration dating from 650 to 800 AD. from the 9th century larger slabs of monumental proportions were erected. They often bear representations of the celtic ring-headed cross in low relief on a rectangular slab. A lot of these slabs also show closely-knit interlacing patterns.

After the conversion of the Viking invaders to Christianity the practice of erecting cross slabs was readopted in the 10th century. Many had inscriptions on the edge in Runes. They also incorporated Scandinavian art styles including interlacing ornament and animals.  


cross with monks

Cross Slab with Monks, Maughold.

A large rectangular slab with Celtic ring-headed cross in low relief typical 9th Century with pictish overtones. The two seated monks flanking the cross shaft probably represent the Coptic saints Paul and Anthony in the Egyptian desert.

crux guriat

Crux Guriat, Maughold

A very large cross slab 7ft x 3ft. the whole face has been tooled downto leave hemispherical bosses protruding to indicate the cross-head. the shaft, ring and base are marked by inscised lines.

The right edge bears a simple inscription in Hiberno-British characters "Crux Guriat"  i.e. the cross of Guriat. Guriat according to early welsh records as probably a British king ofMan whose son Myrfyn Frych successfully established his dynasty as the Kings of North Wales.



osruth cross shaft

Osruth's Cross, St Johns Church, Tinwald.

A runic cross dating from 950 AD. Carved on one face only with the typical Manx ring and chain pattern introduced  by Gaut.

One edge is carved incompletly with runes - But osruth carved these runes. 

sandulfs cross1  sandulfs cross2

Sandulf's cross slab from Andreas now in museum Douglas.

A 10th century cross-slab. The cross is in plain low relief on each face with interlacing on the shaft. Ring chain on one face and a plait of 5 on the other. There is animal decoration flanking the shaft including goats and rams. The common hunting scene of a dog leaping onto a deer.

Runics on side read 'Sandulf the black erected this cross to the memory of Arinbiorg his wife'.






 The 1875 Explosives act was the first major legislation to control the storage of explosives at mines and quarries.  The legislation contains an example of  how a small store should be constructed.



'A description is given of an example of a brick store for use in a small mine or quarry suitable for keeping 50 lbs of blasting powder and 10 lbs of detonators.


Walls – to be at least 9 inches thick with proper footings of concrete composed of 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, 4 parts hard aggregate. An efficient damp proof course of asphalt, slate or copper to be placed above ground level and below flooring joists.


Ventilators – One 9 x 3 inch galvanised iron ventilator with shield to be fitted at top and bottom of back wall.


Floor – To be 6 inch by 1 inch wrought white pine flooring, tongued and groved laid on 4-inch by 2-inch red-pine joists, which are to be well-tarred on ends where built into walls. All flooring boards to be well nailed through the feathers. All nails to be driven angleways and where necessary in flat of boards, to be punched under and puttied over so that no exposed iron may be left. Fillets to be fitted in all angles. Floor level to be 8 inches above ground level. All nails to be of copper or brass.


Framing – 3 x 1 inch white pine uprights securely fastened to brickwork.


Lining – The inside of building, walls and ceiling, to be lined with 3 x inch match-board dressed on oneside tongued and grooved and nailed to 2 x 2 inch framing. Nails to be driven angleways through edges of boards and to be punched under and puttied over.


Roof – reinforced concrete 5 inches thick at crown and 4 inches thick at eaves to run off water. Roof to project 4½ inches over walls and to have weather grooves in underside. Concrete to be formed of 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts clean sharp sand, 4 parts granite, whin or other hard aggregate. The reinforcement not less than 0.2 sq inch per foot run. The roof to be covered with 2 layers of bituminous sheeting laid in hot bitumen. The underside to be plastered with 2 coats of sand and cement plaster finished with a coat of hard wall plaster or finished with timber lining as walls.


Doors – 2 feet x 2 feet x 1½ inches framed red pine doors hung on 6 inch by 2 inch standards securely fastened to brickwork and fitted with 2 solid brass edge hinges and 2 brass locks with duplicate keys. Doors to open outwards and to sheathed externally with iron sheeting. The outer surface of the doors to be covered with 20 S.W.G iron sheeting to cover one door standard, ½ inch of door lintel, and project ½ inch over bottom sole plate, the other door standard to be covered with a strap of 20 S.W.G. thick iron.


Painting – All internal woodwork, except floor, to receive 3 coats of good quality varnish. External woodwork and metal work to receive 3 coats good quality oil paint of approved colour.


A requirement of the legislation was for double doors on the entrance  as is shown by the 2 door frames o this store.




The inside was lined with wood fastened to wooden strips set into the wall. These were fastened with copper nails to prevent any sparks from iron. The floor was also wood.


 The vwooden wall strips on which panelling was fixed.


There was also  a need to display a notice regarding the rules at the store.

explosive regs notice   explosive number


2 notices from explosive stores (Nenthead Mines Conservation Society Collection) 


powderhousebbentyfield      powderhouseny759427


Powder store Bentyfield mine. NY 759 423.


This is built out of local stone with a stone flag roof. It had 2 gables with the door in the long wall.




Powder Ho at Cashburn Mine NY 71668 36707


A simialr design to above but with door off set to side.




Powder Store Greenhurth Mine NY 77 32


POWDERHO NY 69180 35390

Poowder store at Long Kate Lock mine.   NY 69180 35390


nenthead north store1

Nenthead north powder store. Renovated by the Nenthead Mines Preservation Trust in 2015.


nenthead south 4   nentheadsouth5

Nenthead south powder store.

Stone walls cement rendered.




Explosive store at Force Crag Mine NY 19908 21482  a large room for the explosives and a smallerbuilding for the detonators door on opposite side. Brick walls cement rendered.





Explosive and detonator store at Seat Quarry NY 28412 40127.

 A brick built store as per the description.


Explosive store Silverband mine NY 70199 31590.



Small explosive store or detonator store at Hartside barytes mine.




A larger store at Hartside barytes mine.


 powderstore atny297 015tilb


Powder store at Tilberthwaite NY 297 015.


gategill powder


Powder store at Gategill lead mine NY 32418 26304.


Built from the local Skiddaw Slate with bricks to form the door frames and corners.





 A small explosive store at Knock Pike quarry.

 bishophill explo1    bishophillexplo2


Small brick built explosive and detonator store at Bishop Hill limestone quarry NY 61396 58961  there is a pair of limekilns associated with the quarry.


threlkeld powder store  threlkeld powder store b


Powder store and detonator store at Threlkeld micro-granite quarry. Note the warning on the door and the steel plate on the outside of the door.


explosive store foresthead


Explosive store at Foresthead Quarry.

This is a large limestone quarry with an impressive set of limekilns.


nenthead powder store


Not all powder stores were at the mines or quarries. The London Lead Company built its own store at Nenthead village from where they supplied individual mines and miners.

acornbank1  acornbank2

A brick built store at Acorn Bank (Boazman) gypsum mine near Temple Sowerby. Probably dates from the development of the new drift starting in 1923.


 Internal doorway spliting the building in to two parts.





gunpowderiom2  powder storeiom

A powder store on the shore at Scarlett Point limestone quarry, Isle of Man.


powder stored    powder storeb


An explosive store surrounded by a blast wall on Langness, Isle of Man


There is no quarry or mines on Langness and this store could have been for ammunition for the local ranges.













A stead is the term used for storing ore in various stages of dressing before smelting.

Ore that came out of the mine before washing/dressing was termed bouse. If there was more than one set of miners working in the mine then there was a need to keep the undressed ore produced for each partnership seperate till after it had been dressed and the actual quantity of dressed ore can be determined and the partnership can be paid. Therefore a bouseteam/stead was builtwith a seperate bay in which each individual partnerships ore could be stored until there was suffucent to dress it.

bingsteads coldberryashgill


Bouse team built into side of waste tip at Coldberry Low Level.




Bouse team and dressing floor by Gregs Hut on side of Cross Fell NY 690 354 


bousteadscashburn NY7164436


Bouse team at Cashburn mine NY 717 368


bentyfield bousstead


A row of bouse teams at Bentyfield mine NY 751 425.


Once the ore had been dressed it was measured in bings and moved to the smelt mill ready for smelting into lead. The ores from many different mines were smelted at one mill and again the dressed ores from each mine was kept seperate until it was smelted. Again stored in bingsteads.



In some cases the mineral owners were entittled to a proportion of the dressed ore as part of the rent for the mine. In the case of Alston Moor the mineral owners was Greenwhich Hospital and the constructed their own bingsteads at Hudsgill to receive their share of the dressed ore so that it could be delivered to a smelt mill for smelting.



A general view of the Hudgill bingsteads.


Conserved bingsteads. note the shoots in the back wall  that allowed the ore to be tipped in from the road behind and above the bingstead.


The bingsteads here have been restored to show how they were covered in




Small office building presumably for aperson to record the coming and going of the various deliveries of ore.


 nenthead bingstead


The bingsteads at Nenthead Smelt mill. After the smelt mill was closed they were used to store coal for the boiler plant for producing compressed air for use in the mines. 









































































With the increasing number of horses been used and live animals been driven into towns for slaughter to provide meat to the ever expanding population. The quality of most of the drinking water was also very poor, with a high risk of infection with enteric diseases.



Samuel Gurney MP and Edward Thomas Wakefield founded the Metropolitan Free Drinking Fountain Association to provide clean water for people in 1859 in London. They quickly started to provide troughs for cattle and horses and changed their name to Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association.



The idea of providing fountains and troughs soon spread to other cities and towns. Some were provided by the Association whilst others were provided by local societies. A large number of troughs were dedicated to loved ones, eminent members of the community, or animals such as the horses lost in the Boer War.



The majority of the troughs were put in place in the late 19th and early 20th Century. However with decreasing cattle droving as train transport took over and reduced horses being used on the road, the need for troughs was reduced. With road improvements they became a nuisance and they were either moved to other sites (a common use was as a planter) or scrapped altogether. Wooden and metal troughs were used but they tended to be destroyed by traffic and large stone troughs were generally put in place with a drinking trough for cattle, a lower one for dogs and a fountain for people.



 trough rickerby1

 In June 1889 a meeting was held to discuss the provision of water troughs on the main roads in Stanwix, then a seperate administrative area to the city of Carlisle. Whilst it was decided that a trough on Stanwix Bank would not be suitable,but the provison of troughs on Scotland Road and Brampton Road would be acceptable. Eventtually one was placed on  Stawix Brow.  One of the main driving forces was Miss Priscilla Johnson. In  June 1913 a memorial trough was placed on Stanwix Road near to Stanwix Cemetery in memory of Miss Johnson and her work with animals. The granite trough was provided by the Metropolitan Drinkig Fountain and Cattle Trough Association. A suitable inscription was carved by Laing and Beaty.

In the 1930s the road was altered and the trough was moved to near Moorville and later to Rickerby were it is used as a flower trough. 


 trough rickerby2





An example of a metropolitain Drinking Fountain trough in Twekesbury.

Troughs were also provided by other benevolent people usually to mark some event of a notable local person

trough tb

 A similar trough next to the Transporter bridge, Middlesbrough.



 scatterebeck trough


scatterbeck trough2


This trough beside the B6412 at Scatterbeck near Lazonby ( NY 549 383) was provided to mark the coronation of King Edward VII and the improvement in the road from Lazonby with the reduction in the gradient of scatterbeck Hill by Cumberland County Council..


Made from local Red Sandstone.



belfast cattle trough    belfast cattle trough2


Francis Anderson Calder was born in Edinburgh in 1787, he joined the Royal Navy in 1803 and quickly climbed the ladder during the Napoleonic War, his career came to a sudden end with the end of the war. He took an interest in animal welfare and eventually set up the Belfast Society for the Protection of Animals and during the period 1843 to 1855 they erected 10 cattle drinking troughs in the city.

The trough was put up by public subscription. It was designed by the Belfast Harbour Commissioners chief engineer George Smith. It was originally put in Queen Street in 1859 but was later moved. It arrived in it's present position outside the Custom House in 2003.