The Isle of Man is particularly rich in early medieval period carved stonework. The stone work relating to christianity dates from the seventh century, early celtic christianity to the vikings in the eleventh centuries. 

The majority of these worked stones are in the form of grave markers and alot have some form of cross carved on them. The early examples have simple compass-arc decoration dating from 650 to 800 AD. from the 9th century larger slabs of monumental proportions were erected. They often bear representations of the celtic ring-headed cross in low relief on a rectangular slab. A lot of these slabs also show closely-knit interlacing patterns.

After the conversion of the Viking invaders to Christianity the practice of erecting cross slabs was readopted in the 10th century. Many had inscriptions on the edge in Runes. They also incorporated Scandinavian art styles including interlacing ornament and animals.  


cross with monks

Cross Slab with Monks, Maughold.

A large rectangular slab with Celtic ring-headed cross in low relief typical 9th Century with pictish overtones. The two seated monks flanking the cross shaft probably represent the Coptic saints Paul and Anthony in the Egyptian desert.

crux guriat

Crux Guriat, Maughold

A very large cross slab 7ft x 3ft. the whole face has been tooled downto leave hemispherical bosses protruding to indicate the cross-head. the shaft, ring and base are marked by inscised lines.

The right edge bears a simple inscription in Hiberno-British characters "Crux Guriat"  i.e. the cross of Guriat. Guriat according to early welsh records as probably a British king ofMan whose son Myrfyn Frych successfully established his dynasty as the Kings of North Wales.



osruth cross shaft

Osruth's Cross, St Johns Church, Tinwald.

A runic cross dating from 950 AD. Carved on one face only with the typical Manx ring and chain pattern introduced  by Gaut.

One edge is carved incompletly with runes - But osruth carved these runes. 

sandulfs cross1  sandulfs cross2

Sandulf's cross slab from Andreas now in museum Douglas.

A 10th century cross-slab. The cross is in plain low relief on each face with interlacing on the shaft. Ring chain on one face and a plait of 5 on the other. There is animal decoration flanking the shaft including goats and rams. The common hunting scene of a dog leaping onto a deer.

Runics on side read 'Sandulf the black erected this cross to the memory of Arinbiorg his wife'.






A stead is the term used for storing ore in various stages of dressing before smelting.

Ore that came out of the mine before washing/dressing was termed bouse. If there was more than one set of miners working in the mine then there was a need to keep the undressed ore produced for each partnership seperate till after it had been dressed and the actual quantity of dressed ore can be determined and the partnership can be paid. Therefore a bouseteam/stead was builtwith a seperate bay in which each individual partnerships ore could be stored until there was suffucent to dress it.

bingsteads coldberryashgill


Bouse team built into side of waste tip at Coldberry Low Level.




Bouse team and dressing floor by Gregs Hut on side of Cross Fell NY 690 354 


bousteadscashburn NY7164436


Bouse team at Cashburn mine NY 717 368


bentyfield bousstead


A row of bouse teams at Bentyfield mine NY 751 425.


Once the ore had been dressed it was measured in bings and moved to the smelt mill ready for smelting into lead. The ores from many different mines were smelted at one mill and again the dressed ores from each mine was kept seperate until it was smelted. Again stored in bingsteads.



In some cases the mineral owners were entittled to a proportion of the dressed ore as part of the rent for the mine. In the case of Alston Moor the mineral owners was Greenwhich Hospital and the constructed their own bingsteads at Hudsgill to receive their share of the dressed ore so that it could be delivered to a smelt mill for smelting.



A general view of the Hudgill bingsteads.


Conserved bingsteads. note the shoots in the back wall  that allowed the ore to be tipped in from the road behind and above the bingstead.


The bingsteads here have been restored to show how they were covered in




Small office building presumably for aperson to record the coming and going of the various deliveries of ore.


 nenthead bingstead


The bingsteads at Nenthead Smelt mill. After the smelt mill was closed they were used to store coal for the boiler plant for producing compressed air for use in the mines. 









































































With the increasing number of horses been used and live animals been driven into towns for slaughter to provide meat to the ever expanding population. The quality of most of the drinking water was also very poor, with a high risk of infection with enteric diseases.



Samuel Gurney MP and Edward Thomas Wakefield founded the Metropolitan Free Drinking Fountain Association to provide clean water for people in 1859 in London. They quickly started to provide troughs for cattle and horses and changed their name to Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association.



The idea of providing fountains and troughs soon spread to other cities and towns. Some were provided by the Association whilst others were provided by local societies. A large number of troughs were dedicated to loved ones, eminent members of the community, or animals such as the horses lost in the Boer War.



The majority of the troughs were put in place in the late 19th and early 20th Century. However with decreasing cattle droving as train transport took over and reduced horses being used on the road, the need for troughs was reduced. With road improvements they became a nuisance and they were either moved to other sites (a common use was as a planter) or scrapped altogether. Wooden and metal troughs were used but they tended to be destroyed by traffic and large stone troughs were generally put in place with a drinking trough for cattle, a lower one for dogs and a fountain for people.



 trough rickerby1

 In June 1889 a meeting was held to discuss the provision of water troughs on the main roads in Stanwix, then a seperate administrative area to the city of Carlisle. Whilst it was decided that a trough on Stanwix Bank would not be suitable,but the provison of troughs on Scotland Road and Brampton Road would be acceptable. Eventtually one was placed on  Stawix Brow.  One of the main driving forces was Miss Priscilla Johnson. In  June 1913 a memorial trough was placed on Stanwix Road near to Stanwix Cemetery in memory of Miss Johnson and her work with animals. The granite trough was provided by the Metropolitan Drinkig Fountain and Cattle Trough Association. A suitable inscription was carved by Laing and Beaty.

In the 1930s the road was altered and the trough was moved to near Moorville and later to Rickerby were it is used as a flower trough. 


 trough rickerby2





An example of a metropolitain Drinking Fountain trough in Twekesbury.

Troughs were also provided by other benevolent people usually to mark some event of a notable local person

trough tb

 A similar trough next to the Transporter bridge, Middlesbrough.



 scatterebeck trough


scatterbeck trough2


This trough beside the B6412 at Scatterbeck near Lazonby ( NY 549 383) was provided to mark the coronation of King Edward VII and the improvement in the road from Lazonby with the reduction in the gradient of scatterbeck Hill by Cumberland County Council..


Made from local Red Sandstone.



belfast cattle trough    belfast cattle trough2


Francis Anderson Calder was born in Edinburgh in 1787, he joined the Royal Navy in 1803 and quickly climbed the ladder during the Napoleonic War, his career came to a sudden end with the end of the war. He took an interest in animal welfare and eventually set up the Belfast Society for the Protection of Animals and during the period 1843 to 1855 they erected 10 cattle drinking troughs in the city.

The trough was put up by public subscription. It was designed by the Belfast Harbour Commissioners chief engineer George Smith. It was originally put in Queen Street in 1859 but was later moved. It arrived in it's present position outside the Custom House in 2003.










 The 1875 Explosives act was the first major legislation to control the storage of explosives at mines and quarries.  The legislation contains an example of  how a small store should be constructed.



'A description is given of an example of a brick store for use in a small mine or quarry suitable for keeping 50 lbs of blasting powder and 10 lbs of detonators.


Walls – to be at least 9 inches thick with proper footings of concrete composed of 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, 4 parts hard aggregate. An efficient damp proof course of asphalt, slate or copper to be placed above ground level and below flooring joists.


Ventilators – One 9 x 3 inch galvanised iron ventilator with shield to be fitted at top and bottom of back wall.


Floor – To be 6 inch by 1 inch wrought white pine flooring, tongued and groved laid on 4-inch by 2-inch red-pine joists, which are to be well-tarred on ends where built into walls. All flooring boards to be well nailed through the feathers. All nails to be driven angleways and where necessary in flat of boards, to be punched under and puttied over so that no exposed iron may be left. Fillets to be fitted in all angles. Floor level to be 8 inches above ground level. All nails to be of copper or brass.


Framing – 3 x 1 inch white pine uprights securely fastened to brickwork.


Lining – The inside of building, walls and ceiling, to be lined with 3 x inch match-board dressed on oneside tongued and grooved and nailed to 2 x 2 inch framing. Nails to be driven angleways through edges of boards and to be punched under and puttied over.


Roof – reinforced concrete 5 inches thick at crown and 4 inches thick at eaves to run off water. Roof to project 4½ inches over walls and to have weather grooves in underside. Concrete to be formed of 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts clean sharp sand, 4 parts granite, whin or other hard aggregate. The reinforcement not less than 0.2 sq inch per foot run. The roof to be covered with 2 layers of bituminous sheeting laid in hot bitumen. The underside to be plastered with 2 coats of sand and cement plaster finished with a coat of hard wall plaster or finished with timber lining as walls.


Doors – 2 feet x 2 feet x 1½ inches framed red pine doors hung on 6 inch by 2 inch standards securely fastened to brickwork and fitted with 2 solid brass edge hinges and 2 brass locks with duplicate keys. Doors to open outwards and to sheathed externally with iron sheeting. The outer surface of the doors to be covered with 20 S.W.G iron sheeting to cover one door standard, ½ inch of door lintel, and project ½ inch over bottom sole plate, the other door standard to be covered with a strap of 20 S.W.G. thick iron.


Painting – All internal woodwork, except floor, to receive 3 coats of good quality varnish. External woodwork and metal work to receive 3 coats good quality oil paint of approved colour.


A requirement of the legislation was for double doors on the entrance  as is shown by the 2 door frames o this store.




The inside was lined with wood fastened to wooden strips set into the wall. These were fastened with copper nails to prevent any sparks from iron. The floor was also wood.


 The vwooden wall strips on which panelling was fixed.


There was also  a need to display a notice regarding the rules at the store.

explosive regs notice   explosive number


2 notices from explosive stores (Nenthead Mines Conservation Society Collection) 


powderhousebbentyfield      powderhouseny759427


Powder store Bentyfield mine. NY 759 423.


This is built out of local stone with a stone flag roof. It had 2 gables with the door in the long wall.




Powder Ho at Cashburn Mine NY 71668 36707


A simialr design to above but with door off set to side.




Powder Store Greenhurth Mine NY 77 32


POWDERHO NY 69180 35390

Poowder store at Long Kate Lock mine.   NY 69180 35390


nenthead north store1

Nenthead north powder store. Renovated by the Nenthead Mines Preservation Trust in 2015.


nenthead south 4   nentheadsouth5

Nenthead south powder store.

Stone walls cement rendered.




Explosive store at Force Crag Mine NY 19908 21482  a large room for the explosives and a smallerbuilding for the detonators door on opposite side. Brick walls cement rendered.





Explosive and detonator store at Seat Quarry NY 28412 40127.

 A brick built store as per the description.


Explosive store Silverband mine NY 70199 31590.



Small explosive store or detonator store at Hartside barytes mine.




A larger store at Hartside barytes mine.


 powderstore atny297 015tilb


Powder store at Tilberthwaite NY 297 015.


gategill powder


Powder store at Gategill lead mine NY 32418 26304.


Built from the local Skiddaw Slate with bricks to form the door frames and corners.





 A small explosive store at Knock Pike quarry.

 bishophill explo1    bishophillexplo2


Small brick built explosive and detonator store at Bishop Hill limestone quarry NY 61396 58961  there is a pair of limekilns associated with the quarry.


threlkeld powder store  threlkeld powder store b


Powder store and detonator store at Threlkeld micro-granite quarry. Note the warning on the door and the steel plate on the outside of the door.


explosive store foresthead


Explosive store at Foresthead Quarry.

This is a large limestone quarry with an impressive set of limekilns.


nenthead powder store


Not all powder stores were at the mines or quarries. The London Lead Company built its own store at Nenthead village from where they supplied individual mines and miners.

acornbank1  acornbank2

A brick built store at Acorn Bank (Boazman) gypsum mine near Temple Sowerby. Probably dates from the development of the new drift starting in 1923.


 Internal doorway spliting the building in to two parts.





gunpowderiom2  powder storeiom

A powder store on the shore at Scarlett Point limestone quarry, Isle of Man.


powder stored    powder storeb


An explosive store surrounded by a blast wall on Langness, Isle of Man


There is no quarry or mines on Langness and this store could have been for ammunition for the local ranges.













A lot of lead mines in the north Pennines and Lake District are situated away from the main places of inhabitation. It was therefore necessary to build a shelter near to the entrance of the mine to protect the miner and provide some where for him to store his tools etc. At the larger mines a blacksmith would have a smithy in the shop to sharpen drills etc and make brackets etc for use in the mine.




kilhope forge


The reconstructed forge in the shop at Killhope lead mining museum.

When the mine is to far from the miners houses for the miner to walk to and from walk on a daily basis a 2 storey building would be constructed. The lower floor would be for the smith and storage whilst the upper floor was used as living quarters for the miners during the week. Bunkbeds would be constructed and the miners would sleep multiple men to one bed. Due to the number of men housed in the building these buildings were not very hygenic and there are a number of reports on the unhygenic conditions there.


‘I should think it no hardship to have remained 24 hours in a mine, but I should be terrified at being ordered to be shut up a quarter of an hour in the bed-room of a lodging-shop’. 

From The Royal Commission on Employment of Children in Mines 1842.



 James Mitchell submitted a report on the conditions in mine shops.


"The first one of them which I saw was about nine miles across the fell south from Stanhope. It was a plain building, constructed of sandstone, covered with a coarse slate, and all very substantial. There was no opening or window at either end, or at the back, or on the roof. On the front or south side was a door towards the west end, and two windows, one a little above the other. On entering the door it was seen that the lower part was one room, lighted by one of the windows, and had a great fire burning at the east end. By pacing the floor the length was ascertained to be about 18 feet, and the breadth about 15 feet. Along the one side, that next the window, was a meal table, extending the whole length of the room, and alongside of it was a form, and there were two other forms in the room. All along the other side on the wall were little cupboards, 48 in number, in four tiers above each other, six of the cupboards with the doors off, but most of the rest carefully locked with padlocks, and in which the several miners had deposited their wallets, with their provisions for five days. Throughout the room, more particularly at the end farthest from the fire, were hung, from hooks and nails in the joists, miners trousers and jackets, to be ready to be put on in case of the owners returning wet from their work. 


  In addition to the articles already named were the following: -   One earthen pitcher to fetch water, one tea-kettle,  one pan for boiling potatoes,   two pans for frying bacon,   iron fender, poker, and shovel,  a besom. 


"There was a large box in the room, secured by a padlock, said to contain the cloths which the masters put on when they came to see the mines”. "On ascending to the upper room by a ladder, it was seen to be a sleeping-room. The dimensions of the floor were of course the same as of the room below. There was no fireplace, which indeed was not wanted, but neither was there any opening into the chimney to produce circulation of air. Along one side of the room were three beds, each six feet long, by about four feet and a half wide - the three beds extending the length of the room, then there were three other beds on the other side; and at the farther end was a seventh bed, extending from the one line of beds to the other. Immediately over these seven beds, and supported on posts, were seven other beds, placed exactly in the same way. Of course the person who slept in each of the six beds next the wall of the upper tier could raise his head only a very little way, on account of the roof. Each of these 14 beds was intended for two persons, when only few men were employed at the mine, but they might be made to receive three men each; and, in case of need, a boy might lie across at their feet. There was no opening of any sort to let out the foul air. Yet from 30 to 40 persons might have to sleep there, the men perspiring from their work, and inhaling the small dust from their clothes floating in clouds. The beds were stuffed with chaff. There were blankets, but no sheets. "The furniture of the lodging-shops is supplied by the masters”. “The beds and blankets are supplied by the miners themselves”. “They are taken home sometimes to be washed”. "On Friday, when the miners leave, the beds are rolled up to prevent damp. I visited the lodging-shop on


Monday morning. The beds had not been slept in for the Friday, Saturday, or Sunday nights preceding, yet was the smell most noxious”. 


"There was one excellent thing connected with this lodging-shop. There was a small but beautiful stream of water, which was conducted across the fell to this spot, and came through an iron pipe near the door, so that the men had an abundant supply of the pure element”. 


"I next went to see another lodging-shop on a larger scale. On the ground floor were five rooms. The first is a blacksmith's shop. Next to it is the cooking and eating-room of the miners, exactly like the room of the lodging-shop already described. Adjoining to it is a room in which they hang up their wet clothes. At the end is a stable for the horses, which are employed to draw the wagons with ore from the pits”. "By a ladder close to the wall, between the cooking-room and drying-room, an ascent to a room exactly like that in the lodging-house already described, with the same number of beds. One little pipe of about two inches diameter was the only communication with the exterior air”. 


"Through the partition wall is an opening into a bed-room, extending over the dryingroom and the stable. Across this room extended two beds, leaving a space for passing. Above these two was a tier of other two beds. Then at a short interval was a second set of beds, four in number, and farther on a third set, similarly arranged four in number. Thus in the space above the cooking-room, drying-room, and stable, were 26 beds, each intended for two or three men, as it might be, and perhaps more, and the same beds for sets of miners in their turns, as one set came from their work and another went off”. 


"Though the beds had not been occupied for the three preceding nights the smell was to me utterly intolerable. What the place must be in the summer's nights is, happily for those who have never felt it, utterly inconceivable. The medical men are best able to give a judgment on these matters, but, for my own part, I cannot but believe that these lodging-houses are more destructive than the air of the mines. I should think it no hardship to have to remain 24 hours in a mine, but I should be terrified at being ordered to be shut up a quarter of an hour in the bedroom of a lodging-shop”. 


"Many miners speak of the horrors of lodging-shops in the former days; but the only difference I could learn was, that at many mines there were not now so many men and boys at work, and consequently, the lodging-shops were not so crowded. Some mines are not now wrought which formerly had large lodging-shops, for example Manner Gill, of which a miner stated to me that he was one of 120 who lodged in a suite of rooms there, and he declared that the nuisance was much aggravated by the great number”. 


"In such a dense accumulation of bodies, one man who might be ill was a disturbance to the rest.  The coughing of a few interrupted the sleep of others. Men coming from the mine at 12 o'clock at night, and frying their bacon at the fire below sent up an odour which added to the already too suffocating smell in the sleeping-room above.  The great number was an aggravation of what is intolerable at best”. 


"The miners showed me a tank through which running water passed, in which they had placed their bottles of milk which they had brought with them for their coffee.


"There was an excellent supply of running water of the best quality, and it was the only beverage which the men had, for they stated that there was no public-house or beershop nearer than seven miles, and, if there were one, they durst not go into it for fear of being discharged”. 


"The men all said that their lodging-shop was a fair sample of all the lodging-shops in the country, the only difference being the greater or less number of men lodging in them, which would depend entirely upon the state of the mine.  I have, however, since seen one refinement of which these men did not seem to be aware, and that was a lodging-shop in which were not only the beds in tiers all round the room, but there was also a bed suspended or swung from the top of the room, which economically filled up a space which otherwise would have been vacant." 

 William Eddy gave the following statement about Greenside mine.

I went to work in Greenside four years. Our lodging-rooms were such as not to be fit for a swine to live in. In one house there was 16 bedsteads in the room up stairs, and 50 occupied these beds at the same time. We could not always all get all in together, but we got in whenwe could. Often three at a time in the bed, and one at the foot. I have several times had to get out of bed, and sit up all night to make room for my little brothers, who were there as washers. There was not a single flag or board on the lower floor, and there were pools of water 12 inches deep. You might have taken a coal-rake and raked off the dirt and potato peelings six inches deep. At one time we had not a single coal. After I had been there two years, rules were laid down, and two men were appointed by the master to clean the house up stairs twice a-week. The lower compartment wqs to be cleaned twice a-day Then the shop floor was boarded, and two tables were placed in the shop. After that two more shops were fitted up., but the increase of workmen more than kept up with the increased accommodation. The breathing at night when all were in bed was dreadful. The workmen received more harm from the sleeping –places than from work. There was one pane of glass which we could open, but it was close to a bed-head.

The mines at Greenside were well ventilated, and in that respect there was nothing to complain of.

In winter time the icicles came through the roof, and within 12 inches of the people sleeping in bed .During a thaw, water dropped plentifully into the beds. In the upper beds the person sleeping next to the wall cannot raise his head or change his shirt.

On 11th February 1843 the following comment appeared in the Carlisle Journal

GREENSIDE MINE – The Greenside mines in Patterdale, are at present very rich in ore, the low level having exceeded the expectations of the shareholders. Should the projected railway between Penrith and Carlisle go forward, the company contemplate running a steamer on Ullswater Lake in order to expediate and economise the carriage of the lead; they having recently purchased pieces of ground at each end of the lake for that purpose.

This comment drew the following response the next week

Sir – On reading over the notice in your last weks’ Journal of the prosperous state of the Greenside Mines, I was very forcibly struck with the enquiry which almost naturally suggested itself to my mind, namely –whether the comforts and conveniences of the miners engaged in producing the vast wealth which these Mines are at present supposed to be yielding to the lucky proprietors, were allowed to keep pace with the increase of riches and enjoyment of which they have thus fortunately become the possessors, which enquiry was, however, I am very sorry to say, soon answered by a friend of mine by the following statement of fact of which he had himself been an eye-witness. The men engaged at the mines, to the number of I  believe nearly 00, including a considerable number of boys employed in washing ore, reside for the most part at the distance of several miles over the surrounding country, and many of them reside in the towns of Penrith and Keswick, a distance of twelve miles or upwards, and consequently are under the necessity of lodging during their working days in what are called Groove Shops, hovels built by the company in the immediate vicinity of the mines which are known to be situated near to the summits of some of the highest mountains in the North of England, exposed to every bitter blast and storm with which those high Northern attitudes are so frequently visited where they have to carry their victuals, and cook for themselves, for four or five days in the week; now all this would not be much to complain of were the hovels provided for their accommodation at all in keeping with the wealth and luxuries these men are instrumental of producing; but my friend states that one of these shops which he visited during last autumn, and which is said to be the best of the number, consists of a single room on the ground floor, and one room on the first story; the ground floor room, which serves as dining room, kitchen, sitting room, provision store room, and all other conveniences for thirty to forty men, is only twenty-one feet long, by eleven feet wide, and seven feet in height, and which, besides serving all the purposes above-mentioned, also contains four beds, in tiers of two each, one above the other, with a space of about three feet between the lower and upper tiers. The upper room which is of the same length and width as the last is two feet high from the floor to the eaves and anbout eight feet high in the middle to the ridge; here we find eight miserable dirty  beds on frames raiswed a little way from the floor, and three (if possible more miserable looking) slung in ropes, hammock fashion, from the roof, which is thatched with straw; indeed,, no sight I ever witnessed, can equal the dirty and filthy state in which these beds are kept, the men not being subjected to any regulation whatever, and hhaving no one to over-look the state of their accommodation. In fact the very stabling provided for the company’s horses employed about the mines, affords accommodation greatly superior to what I have just been describing. The men likewise to find their own beds and bedding, which they generally wear as long as it will hang on the beds, for the most part without ever being washed, and several of the men have not even so much as a bed or bedding of any description, but are obliged to steal an occasional sleep in the beds of their fellow workmen which happen to be unoccupied. It is fortunate that vermin cannot live among them on account of the noxious quality of the dust from the lead ore, with which the bed clothes are completely saturated, otherwise the miseries of these hard working men must have been alarmingly aggravated. The only light available to the upper room, besides a square hole in the middle of the floor by which the men enter from an upright ladder, is derived from a small window in one end of the room, about two feet by one foot three inches, in which is a small casement about three or four inches square for the ventilation. The ground floor room is lighted and ventilated by an entrance door, and one small window about two feet six inches square both on one side of the building. Many of the men complain heavily of the disagreeable and uncomfortable nature of their accommodations, the storm frequently beating through the roof upon their beds, so forcing them to leave them during the night. I am informed that the London Mining Company provide their workmen at the mines in the neighbourhood of Alston Moor with superior accommodation to those found at Greenside, the beds and bedding being provided by the company and the men placed under wholesome regulations for securing cleanliness and comfort, and why could not the same plan be adopted in one case as in the other? I hope the subject needs only to be brought under the notice of the proprietors to secure the immediate improvement of the conditions of their workmen, several of the shareholders, I am informed, have never seen for themselves the miserable conditions in which the miners spend their working time: one of the proprietors has, indeed, taken laudable pains to provide religious and other instruction for the miners and others in the employ of the company; but it is well known, that men who are exposed to the evil influences described, are not in the most fit state for receiving mental culture. Hoping the above notice will have the effect of attracting the attention of the directors and proprietors, I take my leave of them at present, however, to return to the subject again, should the circumstances call for it.

I am etc


 If the information supplied to Philanthropos is correct then it is obvious from his description that the improvements suggested to be made to the factory inspectors in 1841 had not been made. To date I have not come across any further correspondence on the subject by Philanthropos.

 (from Bulletin of the Cumbria Industrial History Society December 2011.)

 In 1864 another report was produced called the Kinnard Report and Robert Bainbridge gave evidence on behalf of the London Lead Company.


"there are beds which will contain two men each, two men are allowed to sleep together. When asked if the beds are used in shifts, being occupied all of the time he answered. "In general I apprehend that two men appropriate a bed and stick to that bed, they do not like sleeping indiscriminately in each others beds." On the question of how many beds would be in a room he said. “That varies very materially; the beds are six feet four inches in length, and four feet four inches in breadth, if I mistake not; we generally fill a room with beds, and we have two tiers in general, but I may say that practically the upper tier is seldom used; the lower beds are generally those which are used, the upper tier is only put into requisition when there is a greater number of men than are sufficient to occupy the lower."


"With regard to the ventilation, I may state further that we carry up a tube parallel with the chimney flue. The object of that is to carry off the impure and heated air. When the fire is on, the heat in the chimney flue extends to this tube and rarefies the air in it, so that it will either carry the vitiated air off or bring fresh air in, and whichever it doe it is beneficial; that is our means of ventilation which we have; we make use of that also in our cottages here; the company have built a number of cottages for the use of the miners upon the spot, and we make an opening under the ceiling, and carry up a tube, so of three or four inches in diameter, parallel with the chimney but quite distinct from the chimney, still the air in that parallel tube is affected by the heat in the chimney, and it will create either an internal or an external draught; it will either admit pure atmospheric air down the tube or it will carry off the vitiated air of the room into the open air at the ridge."


















bentyfield shop



















Adit and remains of a small shop on the side of the River Tees at NY 73458 34772





Remains of a two storey shop at Calvert Burn mine. The adit is to the right side of the Building


silverband mine2


 The shop at Silverband mine NY 70235 31744. This was still being used as office and workshop etc. until closure in 2006. since then the vandals have wrecked the building.




A well preserved mineshop in Gilderdale NY 88503 44248.

This building is very similar to the one at Hodgson's level at Nenthead.

The downstairs had a blacksmiths shop in it, with the forge still preset ( to much stuff inside to allow photo.) 


The reverse of the same building showing the seperate entrance to the upstairs living area.




Ruined shop at Foxfold mine NY 85724 38449.