An 18th Century Westmoreland Colliery

Based on the account book for Rollinsons colliery near Kirkby Stephen for the years 1729 to 1732. It looks at the various expenses incurred in opening the collier and in its day to day running. It examines the various working patterns and compares this to other documented sources through the north of England.


Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archeological Society, Third Series, vol. x, 2010) 


The Building of the Cumberland and Westmorland Joint Lunatic Asylum (Garlands Hospital)


This paper looks at the difficulties that were encountered in the building of the asylum after the passing of 1845 act. Initial problems were finding a suitable site, when problems were encountered with possible pollution from local brick works. The eventual site, the Garlands farm, to the south east of Carlisle was thought ideal especially with suitable clay on site for making bricks for the building. However there was problems with the brick maker and its eventual building in stone.


Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society series  Volume IV 2004.


The East Cumberland Coalfield


This article looks at the history of the minor Collieries allong the west Pennine escarpment between the valley of Croglin water and Hartside. These small collieries operated from the early 17th century through to the middle of the 19th century.


British Mining No. 88 Memoirs 2009


The Mid-Cumberland Coalfield


Whilst the Caldbeck Fells in the north of the Lake District are famous for their lead, Copper and other mineral mining. Very few people are aware that the limestone hills that form an arc around the North east of these fells was a source of coal in the 17th to 19th Century. this includes Caldbeck colliery, Warnell Fell Colliery, Warnell colliery, Hesket New Market Colliery and Hewer Hill Colliery.


British Mining  No. 92 Memoirs 2011 


Further notes on the North Pennine Iron Ore Mines


The north Pennines are not usually noted for their Iron ore production. Ther has been a few articles on mines on the north Pennines and this article expands on someof these using obscure papers and archive material. It covrs the mines on Horse Edge near Alston, Around Aglionby beck and looks at the tramway to these mines from Hartside and also the mines at Two Tops near Melmerby.


British Mining 9 memoirs 2012 


Cumbrian Brick and Tile Works: North Cumbria


This article lists the brick and tile works around Carlisle giving their location and their operating dates. Examples of known brick marks from these works are also illustrated


The Cumbrian Industrialist Vol. 3 2000


How To Burn Lime?


This article looks at various documentary evidence both primary and secondary in the ways in which limekilns were fuelled and operated during the 18th and 19th Century


The Cumbrian Industrialist  Vol. 4 2002


A Survey of Industrial Archaeological Remains in Upper Geltsdale.


This is a catalogue of the sites in the upper Gelt valley.  This valley in the North Pennines is a tributary of the River Irthing. Originally part of the Earl of Carlisle colliery. Coal was mined here from the 17th century until the mid 20th century and lime was burnt in the area. This was once one of the largest farms in England and there are a number of sheepfolds etc.


The Cumbrian Industrialist Vol. 5 2005.




This short note describes a fox trap on Melmerby Fell. A possible unique structure in the North Pennines.


Transactions of the C&WAAS Vol XIII 2013  


This paper brings a few new documentary and archaeological findings for the mid-Cumberland coal field since the publication of the original article.

British Mining No 106 Memoirs 2018.


John Hall Thompson was one of the owners of the Little Salkeld paper mill in Cumbria. The diary covers the period from 1899 to 1952 and looks the changes in the machinery at the mill and the effect of two world wars and other social aspects of life on the company.

The Cumbrian Industrialist Vol 10 2018.


William Coulthard  started asa mill and mine furnishers in Carlisle in the 1880s. This article looks at Williams life before he set up his own business and then the development of the business over four sites in Carlisle and the expansion into plumbing and builders merchants, lubricator sellers and manufacturers and die cast machine makers and die casters.

This article came about from a request to produce a history for the family. An extended version was produced for the family as a private publication.

The Cumbrian Industrialist Vol 11 2019. 





Copies of any of these papers are either available as either original publications, (Cumbrian Industrialist) Off prints, (C&W papers) pdf, (Mining Memoirs) See contact page for details.