STONE WALLED BURIAL ENCLOSURES.

Families, especially the more affluent would reserve an area within a churchyard or cemetery. This area could be segregated from the other parts of the graveyard in a number of ways.

The Family could build themselves a mausoleum on the site. They would then have an building within the coffins could be placed.

The area could be surrounded by a fence usually made from cast or wrought iron railings, which can be very ornate.

In between the two above methods is the building of a stone wall around the area. These walls are usually sufficently high to prevent people seeing into the enclosure. Burial are carried out within the enclosure and grave stones can be erected or the person can be commemorated with a wall tablet as seen on the walls both inside and outside of some churches.

The high stone walled burial enclosure does appear to be a Scottish tradition, with some good examples especially in the south of Scotland.

 

KIRKPATRICK FLEMING CHURCHYARD

 

burialenclosure1 kirkpatric

 

A burial enclosure with a small skull and cross bones, a sign of mortality, above the doorway.

burial enclosure 1a

 

Another enclosure

 

burial enclosure 2 kirkpatr

 

 

 

 

HOUSE DATE STONES IN NORTH CUMBRIA

 

birdoswald date  birdoswald 2

 

The farmhouse built on the site of the Roman Fort of Birdoswald. The tower is modern not a medieval pele tower.

 

 

THE GELT VALLEY

 The Grahams Arms Middle Gelt Bridge NY 532 573. (now a private dwelling.)

grahamarms

 

 

I

 

    

     

 

InIitials  G S T 1771 carved into the door lintel.

GREENWELL HAMLET

barn greenwell date        barn greenwell

Barn in Greenwell 

house greenwell date       greenwell house

House in Greenwell.

 The Gairs a pair of houses at NY 582 556.

 

thegairs2

     thegairs3

 

 Originally built for the shepherd and gamekeeper on the earl of Carlisle's estate of the Forest of Geltsdale. They replaced a row of earlier cottages. Each cottage at the rear had an earth closet, wash house and pig sty with a small garden.

 

 

 stagsike-2

Stagsyke Cottages between Howgill and Tindale Tarn. It is another development by the Howards of Naworth Castle, lords of the Manor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CUMREW

 

cumrew date     cumrewdate2

Farm at Cumrew

 

FRODDLE CROOK

 

 froddle crook date     froodle crook

Froddle Crook near Armathwaite. NY 50028 49037.

A 2 storey 2 bay cottage with red sandstone rubble walls and steep pitched stone slate roof and a dressed chimney stck. Lintel dated 1746 initials J S.

 

RATTEN ROW, DURDAR.

 

rattne-row-datestone

A cottage at Ratten Row NY 394 496.

Crucks in the building date to 1505 and 1586. It is a single storey of 6 bays.

 

DALSTON

dalstonshopdate   dalston shop 2

A large 3 storey house in Dalston Square. 

Was the local coop for a long time now fish and chip shop (2018)

buckabank2

Cottage Buckabank, Dalston

 

 

orchard ho date    orchard ho holme eden

Orchard House Holme Eden

 

CASTLE CARROCK

   

barn-brackenthwaite-2a

A re-used lintel set into a barn doorway at Brackenthwaite farm. Castle Carrock.  NY 547 532.

 

 

  

 

 

longdykedate  longdyke

Farm building at Longdyke near Castle Carrock, NY 538 536. This was part of the 'great rebuild' that was carriedout by the Earl of Carlisle.

 

WARWICK ON EDEN

 

 

 warwick-date   warwick-barn

A date stone above the access arch to a farm yard at Warwick on Eden.

 

WARWICK BRIDGE, LITTLE CROBY AND CORBY HILL.

 

 

 

house warwick bridge date   house warwick bridge1

 House in Warwick Bridge. Dated 1865.

 

longthwaite farm date  longthwaite farm

Longthwaite Farm, Warwick Bridge. Again either a resited stone or the house has been much altered.

allengrove cottage2

Allengrove cottage dared 1853 with the coat of arms of the Howards of Corby Castle. 

Note on this buiding the bricks are laid in Flemish bond with white headers. A very common pattern in the carlisle and surrounding villages.

little corby hall gate pill

Little Corby Hall Gate pier.

Dated 1843.

Little Corby Hall was originally built in the early 18th Century but was extensively altered in 1842 by Philip Howard of Corby Castle.

The gate post is red St Bees sandstone. The pier on the otherside of the gateway is plain.

 

GREAT CORBY 

bungalows-date     gt-corby-bungalows

These are a series of small bungalows built by the North  Eastern Railway for their retired employees. They are one of a number of such developments spread throughout the country.

gt-corby-house-date  gt-corby-house

A brick built house but why put the name and date over the side door and not the main front door?

pheasent-cot-date   pheasent-cot

Pheasant Cottage, This is part of the Corby Castle estate. (note coat of arms at top of gable) an unusual white brick house with red sandstone detailing.

WETHERAL

 wetheraldate2  wetheraldate1

The cottage next to the blacksmiths in Wetheral.

 

SCOTBY

 

orchard ho scotby1    orchard ho scotby2

ORCHARD HOUSE, GHYL ROAD SCOTBY.

The lintel is now above a window far left window, which was originally a doorway.

 

 

scotbydate1  scotbydate2

A rather poorly carved date on the ventilation stone above the large cart door in this long brick built barn now converted to housing.

 

 

 

LAVERSDALE

 

longriggthorndate     longriggthorn

Longriggthorn, Laversdale NY 487 627.

 

LONGTOWN

longtownb   longtowna

A victorian villa at the south end of Longtown

 

 

BRAMPTON

Station road in Brampton has a number of large detached houses with date stones

brampton date 2    brampton date 2a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A nice red brick house.

brampton date 3   brampton date 3a

A typical local red sandstone house.

brampton date 1

A red sandstone roundel on a white brick house.

 

the keep brampton date   the keep brampton

The Keep .

cottages near cumcatch date    cottages near cumcatch

A pair of cottages to the east of the Sands.

 

LANERCOST AND BANKS AREA.

Lanercost was part of the Howards of Naworth Castle Estate and a lot of the 19th Century housing was built as estate housing and carries the Howard (Earl of Carlisle monogram)

lanercost-corner1 

  Priory Corner cottage Lanercost on road to Burtholme dated 1874

 lanercostcorner2

 Corner cottage Lanercost on the road to The Banks. Dated 1877 it appearsto be the same design as the previous cottage.

lanercostcottages

A row of cottages at Lanercost on the Banks road past the school dated 1872.

datestonebanks

A date stone on a cottage - Riggside  at the Banks, Lanercost. GJ 1834.

ridgeway-date   ridgeway

Ridgeway a house on the Brampton Lanercost Road.

towers-date    the-keep

The Keep on the Brampton to Lanercost road..

HUSHING

 

LAKE DISTRICT MINES

 

hush carrock mine

A small hush to attempt to find the vein at Carrock End copper mine.

hush roughtengill2

Hush in Roughten Gill NY 29821 35718.

 

 

 

NORTH PENNINE

silverband hush

A very long and deep hush running down from the Silver Band mine on Great Dun Fell down into Knock Ore Gill. starting at NY 70170 31614 running to NY 70310 30239.

an adit was driven into the bottom of the hush.

knock hush1a

Another deep long hush Knock Hush running across Green Fell and dropping into Swindale Beck. Running from NY 71441 19715 to NY 71153 29114.

 

hushcashburnmine

Hush running down from Corn Rigg running from a small dam at NY 71886 37321 to Corn Rigg Syke at NY 71696 37181.

There are a number small dressing floors either side of the hush and a number of shafts towards the bottom.

 

hushcrossfell

Hush on the south slope of Cross Fell from a dam at NY 69455 33925 into Crowdundle Beck at NY 69610 33459.

damcrossfell

 

Front of dam for the above hush. 

track crossing hush

The hush lower down is crossed by the track from blencarn past Tees Head to Garrigill. Dry stone walls have been built across the hush to carry the track.

 

hush and damSILVER KELL WEL

The dam in the foreground across the picture with the hush running away downhill at Silver Kell Well mine NY 829 198.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WATERWHEEL PITS IN MINING.

Water wheels were one of the main sources of power for the majority of mines that required more power than could be supplied by either direct physical power by the miners or by the use of animals, usually horses powering a horse gin.

Waterwheels were used to power pumps by the use of pump rods to drain workings that are below the lowest ground level and so canot be drained by driving a drainage level under the workings. the power can also be used for winding up both the ore, any waste rock that can not be stored below ground in old workings and occasionally the miners themselves.

Once the ore is on the surface it usually still had to be processed to concentrate the ore and reduce the amount of waste rock that needs to be transported to the smelt mill. This processing took palce on a dressing floor originally by hand but as machinery such as stamps and buddles were developed they need power and this was supplied by waterwheels.

The smelting process required a blast of air and again the bellows were worked by waterwheels.

The original waterwheels were suported in a wooden frame but more permenant wheel pits were built out of stone or cut directly into the bed rock if suitable.

For waterwheels to work they require a constant supply of water and a very extensive of water management systems were developed. Streams and rivers  had weirs constructed across them to allow water to be directed into leats, which could rum for miles at near horizontal level around the hillsides to either a reservoir or directly to the waterwheel.

NORTH PENNINE

DUBBY SYKE MINE

 dubsykewheelpit

Wheel pit at Dubby Sike Mine NY 7954 3198. size of wheel pit 2.7m by 10.2m.

outflowdubsykewheelpit

Inside of wheel pit showing outflow.

pupmpingrodsdubbysike 

Remains of pump rods which were driven by the waterwheel.

In 1874 the Dubbysike Mining Co. was formed. In 1878 they started sinking the above oval shaft which was driven by the waterwheel via steel rope. By 1880 the shaft had been sunk 14 fathoms. The company ceased working in 1883. 

GREENHURTH MINE

 

wheelpitgreenhurth2

Large wheelpit at Greenhurth used to drive a set up pump rods to a shaft higher up the fell.

courseof pumprods

The course of the pump rods up the fell. The wheel pit is in the distance.

 

tailraceexit

A second wheel pit used to drive a set of stamps on the dressing floor with the outflow tunnel in front.

ST. JOHN MINE.

st john wheelpit 3

Wheel pit used to drive a pump in the nearby shaft.

st john shaft

The capped shaft.

st john wheel

The wheel as it remained in the 1960s.

 

METALBAND MINE

metslband wheel pit 2

 Wheel pit used to drive a set of cornish stamps.

 

metalband wheel pit

This wheel was used to drive a set of Cornish stamps.

metalband stamps

 Remains of stamps.

PROVIDENCE SHAFT, TEESSIDE MINE.

PROVIDENCE SHAFT WHEELPIT

providence shaft engine bas

Providence shaft, in the fore grond, when originally sunk was kwpt clear of water by the installation of a steam engine, engine base in middle ground. However the cost of the fuel, coal and peat, was to high and a waterwheel was installed to power the pumps except in times of drought.

TYNE GREEN SYKE

wheel pit ny 76491 33918 b

wheelpit ny 76491 33918d

This appears to be a substantial wheel pit with water supplied both from Tyne Green Syke and also a leat marked on the 1st edition OS map as Teesside Syke. The overflow can be seen in the second photo.

TYNE BOG MINE.

tyne boog wheel pit

A waterwheel used to pump the Tyne Bog Shaft.

tyne bogg shaft

Capped shaft in front of the wheel pit. Water for this wheel was drawn from a wet area just south of the source of the river South Tyne.

SCORDALE

wheelpit scordale

The wheel pit at Scordale.

SIKE HEAD

wheelpit blanchland

Remains of wheelpit at Ramshaw. Wall on right is a retaining wall for the road.

 

 

 LAKE DISTRICT

GOLDSCOPE

internal wheelpit goldscope

 Internal waterwheel pit hand chiselled in the rock by the'German' miners during the Elizabethean period. Used for drainage.

wheelpit goldscope w3

A wheelpit on West Goldscope again cut from the bed rock and again for drainage.

 

CASTLE NOOK

 

 waterwheel pit castle nook

Another wheelpit cut into the rock. The water entered the wheel from a leat at the height of the grass level area in the background. The shaft was in the foreground.

CONISTON

 

bonsoreastwheel

Bonsor East wheel pit.

oldenginepit2

Old Engine Wheel pit. Used for winding and pumping using a series of pump rods.

old engine ho diagram

Diagram showing the mechanism which the Old Engine Wheel.

newenginepit

New Engine wheel pit.

 

HAY GILL

wheelpitny 30770 36000

Water wheel pit at NY30770 36000

 MYERSHEAD MINE, HARTSOP.

hartsop mine pit and waterw

The stone pillars carried the leat to the wheel pit. the wheel drove via a set of flat rods a pump in the shaft where the tree is.

The waterwheel was made by Cowan and Sheldon at Carlisle in 1867. 

myerheadw wheel pita

 

 The wheelpit.

myerhead wheelpit 2

 View inside the pit looking towards the shaft in the distance at the tree.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GEORGE HOPE, SMITHFIELD.

Smithfield is a small hamlet approximately halfway between Brampton and Longtown in North Cumbria.

George Hope was a Sculptor, general carver and marble mason.

hope invoice

 

Examples of his work.

bell hope irthington

Thomas Bell August 1842 Irthington Churchyard.

rev bell kirklinton hope

White marble wall tablet for Rev. George Bell died November 1872. Kirklinton Church.

el bell hope kirklinton

Slightly plainer table to the Rev. Georges Bell's first wife Elizabeth (above) Kirklinton church.

elliot hope bewcastle

Joseph Elliot Bewcastle Churchyard.

jackson hope arthuret

Walter Jackson died July 1889 Arthuret Churchyard.