- Last Updated: Saturday, 12 October 2019 18:09
- Written by Graham Brooks
NORTH EAST ENGLAND BRICKWORKS AND MARKS.
Original brick works built by the Eltringham Colliery on a site adjacent to their colliery at Blaydon before 1881. The site was leased to Harriman and Co from 1883 till 1891.
Examples of this brick were used to line Ousby Townhead limekilns.
Early 20th century the Ormesby Metallic Brick Co. were making red facing bricks at Long Bank. In 1914 they were taken over allong with the neighbouring Normanby yard by The Cleveland Magnesite and refactory Company. Production was converted to Silica furnace bricks for the local steel works. Due to the recession the Ormesby yard was closed between 1919 and 1921 when it re-opened to make common red bricks using shale from the original quarry.
In 1924 a Bradley and Craven machine press was installed to make facing bricks. The wire cut extruder machine contiuned to make common bricks but also dark red rustic facng bricks.
By 1930 they were hand making roof tiles and special rustic bricks and a small number of chimney pots.
A new clay pit was opened below the brick works and in 1932 a German brick and tile machine was introduced allong witrh a de-airing machine to replace the and moulders.
Red bricks and tile production finnished in 1939 and refactory bricks were made up to its closure in 1968.
The bricks were burned in 6 downdraught kilns, 3 circular and 3 rectangular, with capacity between 14,00 and 20,000.
A roofing tile stamped Ormesby. (Flatts Lane Woodland Centre)
In the early 20th century the New Normanby Brick Company were working a shale quarry near Ten Acre Bank off Flatts lane. They were Refactory Company allong with the Ormesby brick works (see above) and converted to making Silica furnace bricks for the local sttelworks. Ganister and Magmesite chippings were brought to the site by rail. From a primarily hand operation it was converted to a machine process. The Hoffman kilns were decommissioned in 1929 and used for storage. They were replaced with 9 rectanglar down draught kilns
PLAN OF NORMANBY BRICKWORKS. (Flatts Lane Woodland Centre)
OS Map showing Normanby Brickworks (Flatts Lane Woodland Centre)
Roofing tile (Flatts Lane Woodland Centre)
Single bullnose brick (Flatts Lane Woodland Centre)
E & M
The original bricks were made by Emmerson and Milner at the Blaydon Burn works in the 1830s. William Cochran Carr took over this yard in 1850 he retained the E&M trade mark and continued to use it even when he moved to Low Benwell q few years later. W.C. Carr senior died in 1889 and his son W.C. Carr junior ran the brickyard for 80 years, tigether with Benwell Charlotte Colliery to supply the fireclay.
A machine press to make regenerator stove bricks was introduced in 1912.
The works occupied a river frontage of 430 yds and was split into East yard with 11 Newcastle kilns and the Old yard with 16 Newcastle kilns. Between the yards was Low Benwell drift and staith.
Firebrick made at West Hunwick Colliery.
The posiitoning of the 'HG' seems to be variable. The HG stands for high grade and was fired at 1250oF
CROWN brand brick. Presumably rfers to a specific quality.
FOSTER B SPECIAL SHAPE BLOCK.
Produced by H Foster and Company near Backworth pit.
The site had 5 Belgian Kilns and 20 Newcastle Kilns.
Works closed in 1967 due to mining subsidence.
William Stephenson had established a brick and tileworks near to Maria coal pit Throckley by 1849. Hemade firebricks, common bricks, quarls, field drainage tiles and soles. In early 1850's an extrusion machine was used for drainage tiles.
Early hand made firebricks were marked WS & Sons, Throckley or Stephenson, Newcastle.
The works eventually had 34 Newcastle kilns which were replaced in 1951 with a Staffordshire transverse arch kiln. This was replaced in 1965 with a tunnel kiln. It had been taken over by Northern Brick Company a subsiduary of NCB.
Produced by W. Cochrane-Carr's Sunset Brick and Tile Company Works, Fenham near Newcastle. Opened in 1921 by W Chochrane-Carr..
Shale was extracted from a nearby quarry and operated until 1967 when the quarry was exhausted.
Site had a 16 chamber Staffordshire transverse-arch Kiln. Each chamber held 8,500 bricks. Coal was supppliede from W. C. Carr's Benwell Charlotte mine originally then from North Walbottle Coliery. There was also 18 Simplex kilns each holding 6,000 bricks. In 1931 9 Newcastle kilns each holding 11,000 brick. A 120 ft. high chimney was onsite with SUNSET in large letters.
Bricks were made in Bradley and Craven machine.
Roof tiles were also made on the site.
Nelson and Co. of Carlisle opened a firebrick works at the South Tyne Colliery in 1848 known as the South Tyne brick works on either side of Haltwhistle beck. By 1861 Thomas Hudspith was renting the works from them and they sold the works to William Hudspith by an agreement dated 16th February 1866. The works consisted of brick and tile kilns, drying flats, engine house, clay house and machine house. By 1870 there was little room for expansion and William Hudspith opened the South Tyne Sanitory Pipeworks by the railway. The works closed by 1917.
Listed in the 1884 and 1894 Kelly's directories.
1861 census William Hudspith aged 6 born Haltwhistle listed as a brick and sewerage pipe maker
1881 census William Hudspith 56 born Haltwhistle firebrick maker employing 44.
Advert Carlisle Journal 28th March 1879.
Nelsons also owned Murrell Hill Brick works in Carlisle.
A salt glazed feed trough.
A double pig feeding trough amd the makers mark.
One of the specialities of the South Tyne Brick works was tree stumps for garden features and planters. this example is being used as a gate post in Haltwhistle High Street.
B & V
Bolckow and Vaughan the Teesside iron manufacturers had a number of brick works usually associated with their variousn colliereis in Durham.
Variation with a curved frog.
Bolckows is a variation on the BV mark above.
Hartley Main Colliery
A new brick works was built at Usworth Colliery in 1926. 2 Belgian kilns of 28 and 30 chambers were built with a 130 ft. chimney. Owners until nationalisation of the coal mines in 1948 was Messrs Pickersgill of Sunderland.
Bricks were made on 2 Bradley and Craven machine presses.
The brickworks closed in 1966.
Bricks from Langley Barony Fireclay Company, they produced firebricks under the name of Langley Barony Silica Brick Co. allong with some white enamelled bricks. the works became more famous for its production of white glazed sanitary ware, including closets, wash hand basins and pedestals, mens urinals and sinks, marketed under the trade name BARONITE.
The yard had 9 downdraught kilns.
Opened by Mr. William Foster in 1904, taken over by his sons Jack, Joshua and George on his death in 1933 the works closed in 1940.
There was 2 continuous kilns a Hoffmann with 20 chambers later extended by 6 chambers and 26 chamber Belgian kiln built in 1925 with a 125 ft. chimney
Bricks were made on Fawcett machines, including. re-pressed facing bricks, A and B engineering bricks.
FOSTER B A.
Made by Foster in Bishop Aukland.
Both sides of a glazed firebrick.
Established in 1871 near Piperclose it overlooked thev Wylam Walker's fireclay works. Started by Messrs Richley and Jameson
A drift mine was opened to the east of works to mine the fireclay seam. Here it was 6ft seam mined on a bord and pillar system. Early products including white facing bricks and white enamel ware. Early salt glazed pipes and water troughs were marked J&R.
By 1884 the works were owned by J Jameson and Sons and it continnued in the family till closure in 1983. Original haulage was by steam but replaced in 1937 by electric hauler.
The works had a Raurden machine for pipe making in 2 to 6 inch diameter, a Farmer machine made larger pipes up to 15 inch diameter. Hand preses were used for brick making.
By the 1960s the yard had 10 circular downdraught kilns (2 built in 1962 were 25ft diameter). Originally there had been a Newcastle kiln which was demolished in 1940s. the kilns were fired to 1200 - 1250oC and after adding of the salt for glazing the kilns were sealed to give a reducing atmosphere which gave the colour to the pipes.
A salt glazed pipe with 1/2 round stamp.
Salt glazed pipes with rectangular stamp.
A salt glazed water trough.
A very large salt glazed trough with the stamp as a long stamp on the short side.
A firebrick stamped Corbridge, actual maker not known.
It is possible that the above company made the brick (Advert from Carlisle Patriot 15th February 1840)
A poorly stamped brick with LOVE.
Joseph Love (1796 - 1875) and partners owned Shincliffe Colliery and Brick works. He was in partnership with Mr Straker (Bricks marked S & L) and Mr Ferens (Bricks marked F & L) See below.
FERENS & LOVE
From the Cornsay Colliery Brick and Pipeworks.
Mr Love was making firebricks since the 1850s at Brancepeth and Ditchburn collieries and in the 1860s at Shincliffe Colliery. By 1879 he was in partnership with Mr Feren at Cornsay Colliery making salt glazed sanitary pipes and firebricks. The works were taken over by the Holidays in the 1937 but continued to use the same name of Ferens and Love.
The yard closed in 1975 when the kilns were dilapidated.
In 1918 there was 2 Belgian continous kilns with a third built in 1919. One had 24 chambers the other 2 had 16 chambers.
3 Fawcett machine presses were used for normal bricks and a Brightside screw press used for specials. The Fawcetts were replaced in 1950 with 2 Bradley and Craven machines.
Fireclay from the Ballerat seam was used for making white facing bricks once the iron nodules were removed.
JONES AND MAXWELL PELAW
Jones and Maxwell started this brickworks to the west of Monkton coke works in 1895. By 1911 it was owned by Jones Bros. Mainly made facing and engineering bricks. Pelaw Terra Cotta Works established in 1895 by Jones and Maxwelll. By 1911 Jones Brothers owned the yard. It closed in 1968.
A hoffmann kiln with 14 chambers, a continuous kiln of 14 chambers and another of 16 chambers.
Bricks were made in a Bardaley and Craven machine and 3 Fawcett machines, specials were made in a hand operated screw press.
A hand operated press made 'warnig tiles' to be placed over electricity cables.
Bute Pit, High Spen
J Cowen and Co, Blaydon Burn.
Joseph Cowen started about 1834 making bricks at the High Yard, Blaydon Burn with 7 Newcastle Kilns. By 1858 they had established the Low works with 11 Newcastle kilns. The works were taken over by Priestman Collieries in 1900 but the trade make 'Cowen' was kept. In 1919 some of the Newcastle kilns were repalced with a 24 chamber Belgian kiln. A cowen and Bradley brick machine was installed in 1926 for bricks. It could produce 1,200 bricks per hour, these were stamped COWEN M.
A variation with England stamped on it. Suggestive that it was possibly for the export trade, although this exmaple was found at a limekiln at Croglin.
The brickyard was opened in 1901 whenPriestman Colliereis Ltd took over the Lily drift. The yard operated until 1976 producing firebricks. From 1964 it also produced high quality firebricks.
Benson brickworks Fourstones Hexham.
Mickley colliery company near Hexham
lumley Brick Company was beside the Lumley 6th pit from 1870s to 1938. Early firebricks were marked Lumley with the outline of a fortified tower to represent Lumley Castle. Also produced enamel bricks glazed dark green, deep yellow, cream, and coffee brown. Clay came from theLow Main and 5/4 seams. Bricks were burnt in 6 circualr downdraught kilns.
In 1937 Lumley Brickworks ltd. re-opened an old brickworks and the fields next to it were opencast for shale. 2 Fawcett machine presses made engineering and facing bricks which were burned in 8 Newcastle kilns. In 1944 the Fawcett machines were prelaced by 2 Bradley and Craven presses. By 1950 there was 18 back to back Newcastle type kilns in 2 sets rows of 9. These were converted into a continuous kiln. an oil fired tunnel kiln was built in 1960. This was converted to gas in 1977 and the continuous kiln was disused. From 1980 bricks were made on a spengler machine.
Messrs Straker and Love colliery owners had their sanitary pipeworks beside Brandon C pit from the 1870's. After Nationalisation in 1948 making pipes was stopped and firebricks were made. Standerd sizes were made on a Bradley and Craven machine press and specials were made by 6 hand moulders. In the 1960s the yard had 19 circular downdraught kilns connected by underground flues to 2 chimneys.
A shaped brick for lining a furnace etc.
Originally Wallbottle firebricks works and owned by the Wallbottle coal and firebrick works next to Union pit from which fireclay was extracted. Early 1900s M Kirkton and Sons took over the brickyard and opened a shale quarry next to it. They also had a clay pit at the end of ~Lemmington Lane. The clay and shale was mixed together to form the bricks. Bricks were burned in a 16 chamber continuous kiln.
Originally called Joseph Pease and Co colliery owners. In 1882 they merged with S W Pease and Co Ironstone and mineral quarry owners to give Pease and Partners. They registered as a public company in 1898.
Bank Foot Fireclay works Crook. Opened in the 1850s. In a report of 1928 fireclay was bring brought by aerial flight ropeway from the Roddymoor pit machines made 7,000 bricks peer day. White facing bricks had been made up until 1924. Bricks were dried in steam heated drying flats. Hand moulders made firebricks and specials and white glazed ware mainly sinks. The works closed in 1936.
Pegswood Colliery Brickworks run by the Bentick west Hartley Company who were making bricks from 1903 at the site. Seggar clay was produced from the Low Main seam and after crushing was put through a Bradley and Craven twin press machine. A 14 chamber Hoffmann kiln was used for burining.
A large furnace block from Adamez sanitary ware factory,Scotswood, diversified into Scotswood Furnace Comapny.
C & M
Chapman and Morson, Crook Colliery.
Axwell Park Colliery part of the Priestman Group situated at Swalwell.
Brick works associated with the Eltringham Colliery near Prudhoe. Opened in 1881 as the Eltringham Sanitary pipe and Brick Co. it was leased in 1883 to Harriman and Co of Blaydon, who ran it as the Eltringham Brick and Tile works. It made firebricks and white house bricks and later salt glazed sanitary pipes.
In 1891 the manager Mr Dodds toke over the works and ran it as the Eltringham Sanitary Pipe and brick Co. making pipes and salt glazed bricks.
Fireclay was brought by a rope haulage system from West Mickley Colliery.
Production ended in 1975.
The above example was seen at the smelt mill at Nenthead.
Crossley's were a builders merchants company in the Darlington, Teeside area who also had there own brick works.
A badly stamped Crossley Patented Paver.
Errington Reay Ltd produced salt glazed products at Bardon mill and the works are still in production making mainly salt glazed garden pots.
Formed in 1878 when Mr W Reay who had been manager at Haltwhistle South Tyne Fireclay Works and Mr W Errington formed the company Errington Reay and Company at Bardon Mill at the site of the former woolen mill. they originally made firebricks and field drain times with fireclay from a drift mine just behind to the north of the site. This had a 7ft thick seam of fireclay and was mined on a bord and pillar. The mine closed in 1954.
Originally there was 5 small Newcastle kilns and used coal from Morwood colliery which the firm owned. In 1932 a circular down draught kiln was installed which is still in use. It is 16.5ft in diameter internally with an internal height to the top of the dome of 11 ft. Originally it had 10 fireholes, these were sealed up in 1963 and 2 underground mechanical stokers were introduced.
In 1926 a rectangular downdraught kiln was built with 4 fireholes on each side and a second was built allongside in 1935.
Advert Carlisle Journal 28th March 1879.
An example of a water trough.
Slightly off beat from bricks but a salt glazed pot.
A large basic water trough.
The errington Reay stamp applied parrellel to the edge rather than across the corner.
Bearpark Colliery brickworks
Originally fired in 14 Newcastle kilns. In 1928 a 20 chamber Belgian continous kiln, known as an 'Ideal kiln' each chamber held 6,500 bricks. A bradley and Craven machine made pressed bricks with hand moulding of specials.
In 1950's 4 new Newcastle kilns were built each holding 14,000 bricks for use when the continous kilns couldn't cope.
Red bricks were made from shale from the Victoria seam. From 1965 clay was obtained from various open cast coal mines.
Site produced grade B engineering bricks, facing bricks and selected commons. fire bricks were made for internal use.
Manganese was added to the clay to make Mitford Grey Rustic facing bricks.
site closed in 1973.
STRAKER AND LOVE ( S & L)
A salt glazed fireclay trough with a damaged stamp.
PENSHAW BRICK WORKS
Possibly made by the Noble family who had two works, one at Penshaw on the north north bank of the Wear and Washington on the south. It is not known which works produced this brick.
This brick was photographed at Ard Neackie Limekiln, Loch Eriboll, Sutherland.
NORTH DITCHBURN FIRECLAY COMPANY, DARLINGTON
A salt glazed fireclay barn ventilator.
NB brick from the works.
Scoria is derived from the Greek for exxcrement or dung and was used by the Romans to describe the hot lava from volcanos. Then it was applied to the hot wastes (slag) from the blast furnaces.
The slag from the early Middlesbrough blast furnaces was priginally used to fill the marshland and thewn by the Tees Conservancy Commissioners to make 20 miles of riverside walls.
Joseph Woodward from Darlington in November 1872 formed the Tees Scoria Brick company to turn slag from the clay Lane Blast Furnaces into slag bricks.
Molten slag from the blast furnaces was carried to the works and tipped into brick moulds on a revolving table. After 2 minutes the slag had set and the bricks were tipped out of the mould onto a conveyor belt which crried themthrough an annealing kiln until they were cooled.
These bricks were used mainly for roads as they were hard wearing and resistant to alot of chemicals etc. With the coming of motor cars the surfaces of the roads were to bumpy with the bricks and alot were removed or covered with tarmac. A lot are now seen lining the gutter and down the back yards.
The products were not only used on Teeside but were sold around the country and also exported from the Tees.
An article in the Cleveland Archaeologist No 13 1981 p23 - 32 suggest that 12 different styles of block were produced as shown in the following diagram
Example of plain pavers used to line a gutter.
A large Scoria brick with a single divide.
Example of the large blocks laid.
Small Scoria paver with 8 divisions.
Example of their use.
Pavers with diagonal pattern on it.
32 square pavers.
An inter locking 10 sided block.